Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 18;9(1):4715. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40312-3.

Novel catalytically active Pd/Ru bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus benzeovorans.

Author information

1
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, 805 TRU Way, V2C 0C8, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada.
3
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva, 18071, Granada, Spain.
4
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
5
Dutch-Belgian Beamline (DUBBLE), ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 38043, Grenoble, France.
6
Department of Physics University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
7
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. L.E.Macaskie@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

Bacillus benzeovorans assisted and supported growth of ruthenium (bio-Ru) and palladium/ruthenium (bio-Pd@Ru) core@shell nanoparticles (NPs) as bio-derived catalysts. Characterization of the bio-NPs using various electron microscopy techniques and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) analysis confirmed two NP populations (1-2 nm and 5-8 nm), with core@shells in the latter. The Pd/Ru NP lattice fringes, 0.231 nm, corresponded to the (110) plane of RuO2. While surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the presence of Pd(0), Pd(II), Ru(III) and Ru(VI), X-ray absorption (XAS) studies of the bulk material confirmed the Pd speciation (Pd(0) and Pd(II)- corresponding to PdO), and identified Ru as Ru(III) and Ru(IV). The absence of Ru-Ru or Ru-Pd peaks indicated Ru only exists in oxide forms (RuO2 and RuOH), which are surface-localized. X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns did not identify Pd-Ru alloying. Preliminary catalytic studies explored the conversion of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) to the fuel precursor 2,5-dimethyl furan (2,5-DMF). Both high-loading (9.7 wt.% Pd, 6 wt.% Ru) and low-loading (2.4 wt.% Pd, 2 wt.% Ru) bio-derived catalysts demonstrated high conversion efficiencies (~95%) and selectivity of ~63% (~20% better than bio-Ru NPs) and 58%, respectively. These materials show promising future scope as efficient low-cost biofuel catalysts.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center