Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 18;9(1):4715. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40312-3.

Novel catalytically active Pd/Ru bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus benzeovorans.

Author information

School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, 805 TRU Way, V2C 0C8, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva, 18071, Granada, Spain.
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
Dutch-Belgian Beamline (DUBBLE), ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 38043, Grenoble, France.
Department of Physics University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.


Bacillus benzeovorans assisted and supported growth of ruthenium (bio-Ru) and palladium/ruthenium (bio-Pd@Ru) core@shell nanoparticles (NPs) as bio-derived catalysts. Characterization of the bio-NPs using various electron microscopy techniques and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) analysis confirmed two NP populations (1-2 nm and 5-8 nm), with core@shells in the latter. The Pd/Ru NP lattice fringes, 0.231 nm, corresponded to the (110) plane of RuO2. While surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the presence of Pd(0), Pd(II), Ru(III) and Ru(VI), X-ray absorption (XAS) studies of the bulk material confirmed the Pd speciation (Pd(0) and Pd(II)- corresponding to PdO), and identified Ru as Ru(III) and Ru(IV). The absence of Ru-Ru or Ru-Pd peaks indicated Ru only exists in oxide forms (RuO2 and RuOH), which are surface-localized. X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns did not identify Pd-Ru alloying. Preliminary catalytic studies explored the conversion of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) to the fuel precursor 2,5-dimethyl furan (2,5-DMF). Both high-loading (9.7 wt.% Pd, 6 wt.% Ru) and low-loading (2.4 wt.% Pd, 2 wt.% Ru) bio-derived catalysts demonstrated high conversion efficiencies (~95%) and selectivity of ~63% (~20% better than bio-Ru NPs) and 58%, respectively. These materials show promising future scope as efficient low-cost biofuel catalysts.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center