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Nutrients. 2019 Mar 16;11(3). pii: E642. doi: 10.3390/nu11030642.

Vitamin D Status, Calcium Intake and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes: An Unresolved Issue.

Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, Institute of Biomedical Research in Malaga (IBIMA), 29010 Malaga, Spain. aracelimugar@gmail.com.
2
Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. aracelimugar@gmail.com.
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (Ibs.GRANADA), 18106 Granada, Spain. bgfontana@fibao.es.
4
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. bgfontana@fibao.es.
5
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (Ibs.GRANADA), 18106 Granada, Spain. mmt@mamuto.es.
6
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. mmt@mamuto.es.
7
Unidad de Gestión Clínica Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio de Granada, Avenida de la Innovacion, 18016 Granada, Spain. mmt@mamuto.es.
8
Department of Medicine, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain. mmt@mamuto.es.

Abstract

The relationship between vitamin D status, calcium intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a topic of growing interest. One of the most interesting non-skeletal functions of vitamin D is its potential role in glucose homeostasis. This possible association is related to the secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance in different tissues and its influence on systemic inflammation. However, despite multiple observational studies and several meta-analyses that have shown a positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk of T2D, no randomized clinical trials supplementing with different doses of vitamin D have confirmed this hypothesis definitively. An important question is the identification of what 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are necessary to influence glycemic homeostasis and the risk of developing T2D. These values of vitamin D can be significantly higher than vitamin D levels required for bone health, but the currently available data do not allow us to answer this question adequately. Furthermore, a large number of observational studies show that dairy consumption is linked to a lower risk of T2D, but the components responsible for this relationship are not well established. Therefore, the importance of calcium intake in the risk of developing T2D has not yet been established. Although there is a biological plausibility linking the status of vitamin D and calcium intake with the risk of T2D, well-designed randomized clinical trials are necessary to answer this important question.

KEYWORDS:

calcium intake; dairy products; type 2 diabetes; vitamin D

PMID:
30884820
DOI:
10.3390/nu11030642
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