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Food Res Int. 2019 May;119:349-358. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.02.009. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

New approaches to monitor semi-volatile organic compounds released during coffee roasting using flow-through/active sampling and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

Author information

1
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Química, Laboratório de Análise de Aromas, Avenida Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-895, Brazil.
2
Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Senador Furtado, 121/125, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20270-021, Brazil.
3
Center of Molecular Sensory Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand; Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
4
Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
5
Empresa Agroindústria de Alimentos, Avenida das Américas, 29501, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 23020-470, Brazil.
6
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Química, LADETEC, Avenida Horácio Macedo, 1281, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-398, Brazil.
7
Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Electronic address: philip.marriott@monash.edu.

Abstract

A novel dynamic approach is described to profile volatile organic compound (VOC) and semi-VOC (SVOC) emission during coffee roasting aimed at analysing components present in the roasting plume, and to monitor their evolution during the process. Two sorbents - coconut shell charcoal (CSC) and styrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD-2) - were evaluated while collecting substances in four sequential time intervals (0-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 min). Extracted VOCs (<200 Da) and SVOCs were analysed by gas chromatography (GC), and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) with flame ionisation (FID) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection. Results showed CSC extraction presented poor recovery of VOCs and SVOCs released during roasting. However, XAD-2 was able to collect both groups, including SVOCs of >400 Da. GC × GC resolved many co-eluting compounds observed in 1D GC and allowed chemical group type cluster analysis, revealing that many non-polar VOCs are observed within the 0-3 min interval, and that the release of polar and higher molar mass SVOCs were mostly found within the 3-6 min interval. These group-type cluster analyses offer a broad spectrum chemical profile of the released substances. It may also reveal detailed insights into the roast process evolution over time.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Coffee bean cracking; Fatty acids; GC × GC; Lipids; SVOC; Solid phase XAD-2 extraction; Sterols

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