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J Phys Chem Lett. 2019 Apr 4;10(7):1558-1565. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b00348. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Realization of Strained Stanene by Interface Engineering.

Liu Y1,2, Gao N3, Zhuang J1,2, Liu C4, Wang J4, Hao W1,2, Dou SX1,2, Zhao J3, Du Y1,2.

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BUAA-UOW Joint Centre, School of Physics , Beihang University , Haidian District, Beijing 100191 , China.
Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM), Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM) , University of Wollongong , Wollongong , NSW 2525 , Australia.
Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams , Dalian University of Technology , Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 , China.
Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100049 , China.


Stanene, the tin analogue of graphene, has been predicted to be a two-dimensional topological insulator, providing an ideal platform for the realization of the quantum spin Hall effect even at room temperature. Here, continuous stanene has been successfully formed on the Au(111) substrate, and its crystalline structure, phonon properties, and electronic structures are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculations. The surface Sn-Au alloy with a coverage-dependent structural evolution is first identified. At coverage above a critical value, the Au-Sn alloy is gradually converted into epitaxial stanene with a √3 × √7 superstructure. Distinctive vibrational phonon modes are discovered in √3 × √7 stanene through in situ Raman spectroscopy, which are correlated with the tensile strain evoked by its singular buckled structure. Our results present clear evidence for the existence of epitaxial stanene and provide a platform for exploration of the exotic properties of this strained two-dimensional material.

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