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Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Mar;98(11):e14849. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014849.

Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status in the prediction of liver transplantation among patients with liver disease: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

Liu CC1,2, Lu CL3, Notobroto HB4, Tsai CC5,2, Wen PH6,7,8, Li CY4,6,9.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Tainan Sin-Lau Hospital, Tainan.
Department of Health Care Administration, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan.
Graduate Institute of Food Safety, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Department of Biostatistics and Population Studies, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Department of Surgery, Tainan Sin-Lau Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University.
Department of Surgery, E-DA Cancer Hospital, I-Shou University.
Department of Surgery, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung.
Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.


Given the fact that >80% of liver transplantations (LTs) were living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in Taiwan, we conducted this study to assess whether patients with lower socioeconomic status are subject to a lower chance of receiving hepatic transplantation.This was a cohort study including 197,082 liver disease patients admitted in 1997 to 2013, who were at higher risk of LT. Personal monthly income and median family income of living areas were used to indicate individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, respectively. Cox proportional hazard model that considered death as a competing risk event was used to estimate subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) of LT in association with socioeconomic status.Totally 2204 patients received LT during follow-up, representing a cumulative incidence of 1.12% and an incidence rate of 20.54 per 10 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, co-morbidity, location/urbanization level of residential areas, we found that patients with < median monthly income experienced significantly lower incidence of LT (aHR = 0.802, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.717-0.898), but those with >- median monthly income had significantly elevated incidence of LT (aHR = 1.679, 95% CI = 1.482-1.903), as compared to those who were not actively employed. Additionally, compared to areas with the lowest quartile of median family income, the highest quartile of median family income was also associated with significantly higher incidence rate of LT (aHR = 1.248, 95% CI = 1.055-1.478).Higher individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher incidence of LT among patients with higher risk of LT.

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