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Front Mol Neurosci. 2019 Mar 1;12:14. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2019.00014. eCollection 2019.

27-Hydroxycholesterol Contributes to Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization-Mediated Pyroptosis in Co-cultured SH-SY5Y Cells and C6 Cells.

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Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.


Purpose: Emerging evidence suggests that 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) causes neurodegenerative diseases through the induction of cytotoxicity and cholesterol metabolism disorder. The objective of this study is to determine the impacts of 27-OHC on lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and pyroptosis in neurons in the development of neural degenerative diseases. Methods: In this study, SH-SY5Y cells and C6 cells were co-cultured in vitro to investigate the influence of 27-OHC on the function of lysosome, LMP and pyroptosis related factors in neuron. Lyso Tracker Red (LTR) was used to detect the changes of lysosome pH, volume and number. Acridine orange (AO) staining was also used to detect the LMP in neurons. Then the morphological changes of cells were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The content of lysosome function associated proteins [including Cathepsin B (CTSB), Cathepsin D (CTSD), lysosomal-associated membraneprotein-1 (LAMP-1), LAMP-2] and the pyroptosis associated proteins [including nod-like recepto P3 (NLRP3), gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1β] were detected through Western blot. Results: Results showed higher levels of lysosome function associated proteins, such as CTSB (p < 0.05), CTSD (p < 0.05), LAMP-1 (p < 0.01), LAMP-2; p < 0.01) in 27-OHC treated group than that in the control group. AO staining and LTR staining showed that 27-OHC induced lysosome dysfunction with LMP. Content of pyroptosis related factor proteins, such as GSDMD (p < 0.01), NLRP3 (p < 0.001), caspase-1 (p < 0.01) and IL-1β (p < 0.01) were increased in 27-OHC treated neurons. Additionally, CTSB was leaked through LMP into the cytosol and induced pyroptosis. Results from the present study also suggested that the CTSB is involved in activation of pyroptosis. Conclusion: Our data indicate that 27-OHC contributes to the pathogenesis of cell death by inducing LMP and pyroptosis in neurons.


27-hydroxycholesterol; SH-SY5Y cells and C6 cells; cell co-culture; lysosomal membrane permeabilization; pyroptosis

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