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Indian J Med Microbiol. 2018 Oct-Dec;36(4):508-512. doi: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_18_99.

A road less travelled: Clinical comparison of HIV seropositive and seronegative patients with cystoisosporiasis - An 11-year experience from a tertiary care centre in Northern India.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2
Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Background:

Cystoisospora is a well-known opportunistic enteric parasite among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients but there is a paucity of data among HIV negative patients. This study investigated Cystosporiasis on both HIV positive and negative patients, with or without diarrhea, presenting to a tertiary care and super specialty center of northern India.

Methodology:

Oocysts of Cystoisospora were detected on light microscopy, by modified Kinyoun staining of stool specimens, over an 11-year study period.

Results:

Of the 10,233 stool specimens evaluated, Cystoisospora was detected in 64 patients, 37 (57.81%) of whom were HIV positive. Year-wise analysis showed an overall declining trend of cystoisosporiasis. Maximum cases were detected in May and June in HIV positive patients and February and September among HIV negative patients. Among HIV positive patients, the mean CD4 count was 152.04 ± 81.12cells/μL, mean absolute eosinophil count (AEC) was 229.16 ± 175.62 cells/μL and 12.5% patients had mild eosinophilia. Tuberculosis was the most common co-morbidity. Dual infections of Cystoisospora with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also seen. Among HIV negative patients, eight had primary autoimmune disorders, seven were solid organ transplant recipients and the rest had chronic bowel diseases. The mean AEC was 485.47 ± 414.88 cells/μL, with 14.81% patients showing mild and 11.11% showing marked eosinophilia. Dual infection with Giardia was seen. Recurrent cystoisosporiasis was noted, despite cotrimoxazole treatment in a single case.

Conclusion:

The epidemiology of cystoisosporiasis differs between HIV seropositive and seronegative patients in terms of year-wise and month-wise trends, co-infections and most importantly, AECs.

KEYWORDS:

Absolute eosinophil counts; Cystoisospora; autoimmune; transplant

PMID:
30880697
DOI:
10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_18_99

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