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Asian J Androl. 2019 Mar 15. doi: 10.4103/aja.aja_115_18. [Epub ahead of print]

Complications of proximal hypospadias repair with transverse preputial island flap urethroplasty: a 15-year experience with long-term follow-up.

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Department of Urology, Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100045, China.


There is still debate regarding the optimal surgical approach for proximal hypospadias. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the long-term outcomes using transverse preputial island flap urethroplasty. A total of 320 patients were included, with a mean follow-up of 40.2 months (range: 1-156 months). Complications were encountered in 125 patients (39.1%), including fistulas in 53 (16.6%), urethral strictures in 31 (9.7%), and diverticula in 41 (12.8%). The mean timing of presentation with a complication was 15.8 months (median: 1.7, range: 1-145), of which 79.2% were early complications and 20.8% were late complications. In all, 20.8% of the patients with complications presented after ≥1 year, and 12.8% presented after ≥5 years. Univariate analysis revealed that age at the time of surgery, flap length, and location of the urethral meatus were not correlated with complications. A stricture was present in 31.7% (13/41) of those with diverticula (P < 0.001), while late urethral diverticula were accompanied by urethral strictures in 11.1% (1/9) of cases (P = 0.213). These results indicate that transverse preputial island flap urethroplasty still has a high incidence of complications, even when performed by highly experienced physicians. Most complications of hypospadias are diagnosed within 1 year postoperatively, while fistulas and urinary strictures generally occur within 2 months and diverticula tend to be present by 1 year.


diverticulum; fistula; follow-up; hypospadias; late complications; urethral stricture

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