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J Biomater Appl. 2019 May;33(10):1327-1347. doi: 10.1177/0885328219832984. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Clopidogrel eluting electrospun polyurethane/polyethylene glycol thromboresistant, hemocompatible nanofibrous scaffolds.

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1 Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Pune, India.
2 Polymer Science and Engineering Division, CSIR- National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India.
3 Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
4 School of Engineering, Ajeenkya DY Patil University (ADYPU), Pune, India.


Biomaterials used as blood-contacting material must be hemocompatible and exhibit lower thrombotic potential while maintaining hemostasis and angiogenesis. With the aim of developing thromboresistant, hemocompatible nanofibrous scaffolds, polyurethane/polyethylene glycol scaffolds incorporated with 1, 5, and 10 wt% Clopidogrel were fabricated and evaluated for their physiochemical properties, biocompatibility, hemocompatibility, and antithrombotic potential. The results of physicochemical characterization revealed the fabrication of nanometer-sized scaffolds with smooth surfaces. The incorporation of both polyethylene glycol and Clopidogrel to polyurethane enhanced the hydrophilicity and water uptake potential of polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel scaffolds. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed the enhancement in mechanical strength of the polyurethane/polyethylene glycol scaffolds on incorporation of Clopidogrel. The polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel scaffolds showed a tri-phasic drug release pattern. The results of hemocompatibility assessment demonstrated the excellent blood compatibility of the polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel scaffolds, with the developed scaffolds exhibiting lower hemolysis, increased albumin and plasma protein adsorption while reduction in fibrinogen adsorption. Further, the platelet adhesion was highly suppressed and significant increase in coagulation period was observed for Clopidogrel incorporated scaffolds. The results of cell adhesion and cell viability substantiate the biocompatibility of the developed nanofibrous scaffolds with the HUVEC cell viability on polyurethane/polyethylene glycol, polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel-1, 5, and 10% at day 7 found to be 12.35, 13.36, 14.85, and 4.18% higher as compared to polyurethane scaffolds, and the NIH/3T3 cell viability found to be 35.27, 70.82, 36.60, and 7.95% higher as compared to polyurethane scaffolds, respectively. Altogether the results of the study advocate the incorporation of Clopidogrel to the polyurethane/polyethylene glycol blend in order to fabricate scaffolds with appropriate antithrombotic property, hemocompatibility, and cell proliferation capacity and thus, might be successfully used as antithrombotic material for biomedical application.


Hemocompatible; adhesion; cardiovascular; coagulation; electrospinning; platelet


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