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Environ Int. 2019 May;126:727-734. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.02.068. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Community greenness, blood pressure, and hypertension in urban dwellers: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

Author information

1
Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.
2
Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Ziemssenstraße 1, 80336 Munich, Germany; Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany; Division of Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Munich, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
3
Departments of Environmental Health Sciences and Epidemiology and Biostatics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA.
4
Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Ziemssenstraße 1, 80336 Munich, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich, German Center for Lung Research, Ziemssenstraße 1, 80336 Munich, Germany.
5
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.
6
International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia.
7
Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population & Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia; Murdoch Children Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia.
8
School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia.
9
Centre for Air Quality and Health Research and Evaluation, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia; Population Health, South Western Sydney Local Health District, Liverpool, NSW 2170, Australia; Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170, Australia; School of Public Health and Community Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia.
10
Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio FI 70211, Finland.
11
Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Living in greener areas has many health benefits, but evidence concerning the effects on blood pressure remains mixed. We sought to assess associations between community greenness and both blood pressure and hypertension in Chinese urban dwellers, and whether the associations were mediated by air pollution, body mass index, and physical activity.

METHODS:

We analyzed data from 24,845 adults participating in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, which was conducted in Northeastern China during 2009. We measured each participant's blood pressure according to a standardized protocol. We assessed community greenness using two satellite-derived vegetation indexes - the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Particulate matter ≤2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide were used as proxies of ambient air pollution. We applied generalized linear mixed models to investigate the association between greenness and blood pressure. We also performed mediation analyses.

RESULTS:

Living in greener areas was associated with lower blood pressure and hypertension prevalence; an interquartile range increase in both NDVI500-m and SAVI500-m were significantly associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure of 0.82 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.13, -0.51) and 0.89 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.21, -0.57), respectively. The same increases in greenness were also significantly associated with a 5% (95% CI: 1%, 8%) and 5% (95% CI: 1%, 9%) lower odds of having hypertension, respectively. These associations remained consistent in sensitivity analyses. The associations were stronger among women than men. Air pollutants and body mass index partly mediated the associations, but there was no evidence of mediation effects for physical activity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings indicate beneficial associations between community greenness and blood pressure in Chinese adults, especially for women. Air pollution and body mass index only partly mediated the associations.

KEYWORDS:

Blood pressure; Chinese adults; Cross-sectional study; Greenness; Hypertension; Mediation

PMID:
30878868
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2019.02.068
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