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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Jun 15;174:714-727. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.02.068. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Phytoremediation: Environmentally sustainable way for reclamation of heavy metal polluted soils.

Author information

1
Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Electronic address: sanaashrafenv@gmail.com.
2
Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan; College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Bahadur Sub-campus Layyah, Pakistan.
3
Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Abstract

Soil contamination with toxic metals is a widespread environmental issue resulting from global industrialization within the past few years. Therefore, decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils is very important to reduce the associated risks and for maintenance of environmental health and ecological restoration. Conventional techniques for reclamation of such soils are expensive and environmental non-friendly. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology implementing green plants to clean up the environment from contaminants and has been considered as a cost-effective and non-invasive alternative to the conventional remediation approaches. There are different types of phytoremediation including, phytostabilization, phytostimulation, phytotransformation, phytofiltration and phytoextraction, the latter being most extensively acknowledged for remediation of soils contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Recent literature is gathered to critically review the sources, hazardous effects of toxic heavy metals and environmentally sustainable phytoremediation technique for heavy metal polluted soils to offer widespread applicability of this green technology. Different strategies to enhance the bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil are also discussed shortly. It can be concluded that phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils is a reliable tool and necessary for making the land resource accessible for crop production.

KEYWORDS:

Acidified cow dung slurry; Biological sulfur oxidation; Environmental sustainability; Heavy metals; Phytoextraction; Phytoremediation

PMID:
30878808
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.02.068
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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