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Diabetes Metab J. 2019 Mar 12. doi: 10.4093/dmj.2018.0218. [Epub ahead of print]

Early Assessment of the Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Can Fasting Parameters of Glucose Metabolism Contribute to Risk Prediction?

Author information

1
Division of Obstetrics and Feto-Maternal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
2
Wunschbaby Institut Feichtinger, Vienna, Austria.
3
Metabolic Unit, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Padova, Italy.
4
Division of Obstetrics and Feto-Maternal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. christian.goebl@meduniwien.ac.at.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

An early identification of the risk groups might be beneficial in reducing morbidities in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the biochemical predictors of glycemic conditions, in addition to fasting indices of glucose disposal, to predict the development of GDM in later stage and the need of glucose-lowering medication.

METHODS:

A total of 574 pregnant females (103 with GDM and 471 with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) were included. A metabolic characterization was performed before 15⁺⁶ weeks of gestation by assessing fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), fasting C-peptide (FCP), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Thereafter, the patients were followed-up until the delivery.

RESULTS:

Females with NGT had lower levels of FPG, FI, FCP, or HbA1c at the early stage of pregnancy, and therefore, showed an improved insulin action as compared to that in females who developed GDM. Higher fasting levels of FPG and FCP were associated with a higher risk of developing GDM. Moreover, the predictive accuracy of this metabolic profiling was also good to distinguish the patients who required glucose-lowering medications. Indices of glucose disposal based on C-peptide improved the predictive accuracy compared to that based on insulin. A modified quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKIc) showed the best differentiation in terms of predicting GDM (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve [ROC-AUC], 72.1%) or need for pharmacotherapy (ROC-AUC, 83.7%).

CONCLUSION:

Fasting measurements of glucose and C-peptide as well as the surrogate indices of glycemic condition could be used for stratifying pregnant females with higher risk of GDM at the beginning of pregnancy.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes, gestational; Glucose metabolism disorders; Insulin resistance; Insulin secretion; Metabolic diseases

PMID:
30877716
DOI:
10.4093/dmj.2018.0218
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Conflict of interest statement

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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