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BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Mar 15;19(1):261. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3826-5.

Prevalence, predictors, and management of advanced HIV disease among individuals initiating ART in Senegal, West Africa.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Box 358061, 750 Republican St, Seattle, WA, 98109-4725, USA. benzekri@uw.edu.
2
Centre de Santé de Ziguinchor, Ziguinchor, Senegal.
3
Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier National Universitaire (CHNU) de Fann, Dakar, Senegal.
4
Centre de Santé de Bignona, Bignona, Senegal.
5
Hôpital de la Paix, Ziguinchor, Senegal.
6
Division de Lutte contre le Sida et les IST, Ministère de la Santé et de l'Action Sociale, Dakar, Sénégal.
7
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
8
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
9
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Box 358061, 750 Republican St, Seattle, WA, 98109-4725, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The WHO guidelines for the management of advanced HIV disease recommend a package of care consisting of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), enhanced screening and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcal meningitis, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), fluconazole pre-emptive therapy, and adherence support. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence of advanced HIV disease among individuals initiating ART in Senegal, to identify predictors of advanced disease, and to evaluate adherence to the WHO guidelines.

METHODS:

This study was conducted among HIV-positive individuals initiating ART in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Clinical evaluations, laboratory analyses, questionnaires and chart review were conducted. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of advanced disease.

RESULTS:

A total of 198 subjects were enrolled; 70% were female. The majority of subjects (71%) had advanced HIV disease, defined by the WHO as a CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 or clinical stage 3 or 4. The median CD4 count was 185 cells/mm3. The strongest predictors of advanced disease were age ≥ 35 (OR 5.80, 95%CI 2.35-14.30) and having sought care from a traditional healer (OR 3.86, 95%CI 1.17-12.78). Approximately one third of subjects initiated ART within 7 days of diagnosis. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was provided to 65% of subjects with CD4 counts ≤350 cells/mm3 or stage 3 or 4 disease. TB symptom screening was available for 166 subjects; 54% reported TB symptoms. Among those with TB symptoms, 39% underwent diagnostic evaluation. Among those eligible for IPT, one subject received isoniazid. No subjects underwent CrAg screening or received fluconazole to prevent cryptococcal meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first study to report an association between seeking care from a traditional healer and presentation with WHO defined advanced disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the widespread use of traditional healers in sub-Saharan Africa, future studies to further explore this finding are indicated. Although the majority of individuals in this study presented with advanced disease and warranted management according to WHO guidelines, there were numerous missed opportunities to prevent HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. Programmatic evaluation is needed to identify barriers to implementation of the WHO guidelines and enhanced funding for operational research is indicated.

KEYWORDS:

Advanced disease; Antiretroviral therapy (ART); Co-trimoxazole; Cryptococcal meningitis; Fluconazole; HIV/AIDS; Implementation; Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT); Preventive therapy; Prophylaxis; Senegal; Traditional healer; Tuberculosis (TB); West Africa; World Health Organization (WHO)

PMID:
30876400
PMCID:
PMC6420737
DOI:
10.1186/s12879-019-3826-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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