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Arch Oral Biol. 2019 Mar 5;101:34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.03.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Compensatory dentoalveolar supraeruption and occlusal plane cant after botulinum-induced hypotrophy of masticatory closing muscles in juvenile rats.

Author information

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.
2
Oral Science Research Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.
3
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, National Health Insurance Service, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-si, South Korea.
4
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea; Oral Science Research Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: sanghwy@yuhs.ac.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the dentoalveolus and occlusal plane associated with the hypotrophy of unilateral masticatory muscles following botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment in the juvenile period of rats.

DESIGN:

We hypothesized that the loss of functional loading of masticatory muscles and occlusal force invites compensatory dentoalveolar supraeruption, accelerating occlusal cant and skeletal asymmetry. In order to confirm this hypothesis, six-week-old male rats (N = 5) were treated with BTX simultaneously at the unilateral masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid muscles, with a booster injection after six weeks for the experimental group. The control group (N = 6) had saline injections on both sides at the same sites and on the same schedule.

RESULTS:

After 12 weeks, masseter and medial pterygoid muscles on the BTX side showed hypotrophic change. The mandibular structure was asymmetrical, with decreased size and lateral tilting. The maxillary and mandibular molars were supraerupted from the Frankfort plane or mandibular inferior border with lateral tilt. They accompanied downward occlusal plane cant resulting from the supraerupted maxillary and mandibular molars on the BTX side. The dentoalveolar structural changes included diminished alveolar bone density, narrow periodontal ligament space, and disorganized distribution of periodontal collagen fiber.

CONCLUSIONS:

Unilateral hypotrophy of masticatory muscles affected the growth, symmetry, and structure of the skeletal jaws and dentoalveolus. Our hypothesis about the dentoalveolar compensation, that muscular hypotrophy was closely integrated with dentoalveolar supraeruption and an inclined occlusal plane, was confirmed.

KEYWORDS:

Alveolar bone; Botulinum toxins; Mandible; Microscopic computed tomography; Occlusal plane; Tooth

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