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Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 2019 Mar 1;10:617-633. doi: 10.3762/bjnano.10.62. eCollection 2019.

Review of time-resolved non-contact electrostatic force microscopy techniques with applications to ionic transport measurements.

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Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Québec H3A2T8, Canada.


Recently, there have been a number of variations of electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) that allow for the measurement of time-varying forces arising from phenomena such as ion transport in battery materials or charge separation in photovoltaic systems. These forces reveal information about dynamic processes happening over nanometer length scales due to the nanometer-sized probe tips used in atomic force microscopy. Here, we review in detail several time-resolved EFM techniques based on non-contact atomic force microscopy, elaborating on their specific limitations and challenges. We also introduce a new experimental technique that can resolve time-varying signals well below the oscillation period of the cantilever and compare and contrast it with those previously established.


atomic force microscopy; electrostatic force microscopy; ionic transport; lithium ion batteries; nanotechnology

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