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Haematologica. 2019 Apr;104(4):659-668. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.206151. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

State-of-the-art review: allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis in 2019.

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Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Haematology, Guy's Tower, Great Maze Pond, London, UK
Comprehensive Cancer Centre, King's College, London, UK.
CHU de Lille, LIRIC, INSERM U995, Universite de Lille, France.
Hôpital Saint-Louis, Service d'Hématologie-Greffe, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, University Paris 7, INSERM 1131, France.
Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Hematology, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4 and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Haematology, Guy's Tower, Great Maze Pond, London, UK.
University Hospital Eppendorf, Hematology Department, Hamburg, Germany.


Advances in understanding the pathogenesis and molecular landscape of myelofibrosis have occurred over the last decade. Treating physicians now have access to an ever-evolving armamentarium of novel agents to treat patients, although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative approach. Improvements in donor selection, conditioning regimens, disease monitoring and supportive care have led to augmented survival after transplantation. Nowadays, there are comprehensive guidelines concerning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with myelofibrosis. However, it commonly remains difficult for both physicians and patients alike to weigh up the risk-benefit ratio of transplantation given the inherent heterogeneity regarding both clinical course and therapeutic response. In this timely review, we provide an up-to-date synopsis of current transplantation recommendations, discuss usage of JAK inhibitors before and after transplantation, examine donor selection and compare conditioning platforms. Moreover, we discuss emerging data concerning the impact of the myelofibrosis mutational landscape on transplantation outcome, peritransplant management of splenomegaly, poor graft function and prevention/management of relapse.

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