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J Occup Environ Med. 2019 Jul;61(7):535-544. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001582.

A Comparison of Job Stress Models: Associations With Employee Well-Being, Absenteeism, Presenteeism, and Resulting Costs.

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Department for Business, Work & Organizational Psychology, Applied University Fresenius, Heidelberg, Germany (Dr Schmidt); Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany (Seeger and Dr Herr); Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (Dr van Vianen); Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (Dr Loerbroks); Department of Occupational Health, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany (Dr Schneider).



This study investigates the associations between Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI), Overcommitment (OC), Job-Demand-Control (JDC), and Organizational Injustice (OIJ) with employee well-being, absenteeism, and presenteeism, as well as the costs incurred.


Cross-sectional data from 1440 German pharmaceutical company employees assessing job stress, employee well-being, absenteeism, and presenteeism were used. Linear regression and interval regression analyses assessed separate and independent associations and sample-specific costs were estimated.


All four stressors were related to employee well-being, presenteeism, and absenteeism when analyzed separately. OIJ showed the strongest independent association with absenteeism (coef. = 0.89; P < 0.01), whereas OC was most strongly independently associated with lower well-being (coef. = -0.44; P < 0.01) and higher presenteeism (coef. = 0.28; P < 0.01). Absenteeism costs per employee/year were higher than presenteeism costs.


Occupational health interventions reducing job stress will have strong potential for productivity raise and lower costs.

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