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J Anim Sci. 2019 Apr 29;97(5):2258-2269. doi: 10.1093/jas/skz081.

TRIENNIAL GROWTH SYMPOSIUM: THE NUTRITION OF MUSCLE GROWTH: Impacts of nutrition on the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in livestock species1,2.

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Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Science, Utah State University, Logan, UT.


Nutrition and other external factors are known to have a marked effect on growth of skeletal muscle, modulated, at least in part, through effects on satellite cells. Satellite cells and their embryonic precursors play an integral role in both prenatal and postnatal skeletal muscle growth of mammals. Changes in maternal nutrition can impact embryonic muscle progenitor cells which ultimately impacts both prenatal and postnatal skeletal muscle development. Satellite cells are important in postnatal skeletal muscle growth as they support the hypertrophy of existing myofibers. Hypertrophy of existing fibers is the only mechanism of postnatal muscle growth because muscle fiber number is fixed at birth and fiber nuclei have exited the cell cycle. Because fiber nuclei do not divide, additional nuclei required for hypertrophy must be acquired from satellite cells. To date, little research has aimed at determining whether nutrition directly impacts satellite cell populations within skeletal muscle of livestock species. However, it is well established that nutrition alters circulating concentrations of various growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor. Each of these different growth factors impacts satellite cell proliferation and/or activation, indicating that nutrition likely plays a large role in skeletal muscle growth through impacting the satellite cell pool in both prenatal and postnatal growth. The relationship among nutrition, growth factors, and satellite cells relative to skeletal muscle growth is an important area of research that warrants further consideration.


growth; livestock; nutrition; satellite cells; skeletal muscle

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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