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Int J Stroke. 2019 Oct;14(7):686-695. doi: 10.1177/1747493019835335. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Racial/ethnic disparities in hospital utilization in intracerebral hemorrhage.

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Department of Neurology, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA.



There is evidence that racial and ethnic differences among intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients exist. We sought to establish the occurrence of disparities in hospital utilization in the United States.


We identified ICH patients from United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for years 2006-2014 using codes (DX1 = 431, 432.0) from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition. We compared five race/ethnic categories: White, Black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and Others ( Native American and other) with regard to demographics, comorbidities, disease severity, in-hospital complications, in-hospital procedures, length of stay (LOS), total hospital charges, in-hospital mortality, palliative care, (PC) and do not resuscitate (DNR). We categorized procedures as lifesaving (i.e. ventriculostomy, craniotomy, craniectomy, and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt), life sustaining (i.e. mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, transfusions, and gastrostomy). White race/ethnicity was set as the reference group.


Out of 710,293 hospitalized patients with ICH 470,539 (66.2%), 114,821 (16.2%), 66,451 (9.3%), 30,297 (4.3%) and 28,185 (3.9%) were White, Black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and Others, respectively. Minorities (Black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and Others) had a higher rate of in-hospital complications, in-hospital procedures, mean LOS, and hospital charges compared to Whites. In contrast, Whites had a higher rate of in-hospital mortality, PC, and DNR. In multivariable analysis, all minorities had higher rate of MV, tracheostomy, transfusions, and gastrostomy compared to Whites, while Hispanics had higher rate of craniectomy and VP shunt; and Asian or Pacific Islander and Others had higher rate of craniectomy. Whites had a higher rate of in-hospital mortality, palliative care, and DNR compared to minorities. In mediation analysis, in-hospital mortality for whites remained high after adjusting with PC and DNR.


Minorities had greater utilization of lifesaving and life sustaining procedures, and longer LOS. Whites had greater utilization of palliative care, hospice, and higher in-hospital mortality. These results may reflect differences in culture or access to care and deserve further study.


Do not resussiate; in-hospital mortality; in-hospital utilization; intracerebral hemorrhage; palliative care; racial disparities


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