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J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2019 Jan-Mar;31(1):108-122.

Advances In Research On Genome Editing Crispr-Cas9 Technology.

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Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
School of Biological Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.



The current era of genome engineering has been revolutionized by the evolution of a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) into a radical technology that is making an expeditious progress in its mechanism, function and applicability..


A systematic literature review study was carried out with the help of all available information and online resources..


In this review, we intend to elucidate different aspects of CRISPR in the light of current advancements. Utilizing a nonspecific Cas9 nuclease and a sequence specific programmable CRISPR RNA (crRNA), this system cleaves the target DNA with high precision. With a vast potential for profound implications, CRISPR has emerged as a mainstream method for plausible genomic manipulations in a range of organisms owing to its simplicity, accuracy and speed. A modified form of CRISPR system, known as CRISPR/Cpf1 that employs a smaller and simpler endonuclease (Cpf1) than Cas9, can be used to overcome certain limitations of CRISPR/Cas9 system. Despite clear-cut innovative biological applications, this technology is challenged by off-target effects and associated risks, thus safe and controlled implementation is needed to enable this emerging technique assist both biological research and translational applications.


CRISPR/Cas9 systems will undoubtedly revolutionize the study and treatment of both immunologic and allergic diseases. Concerned authorities should formulate and authorize such laws and regulations that permit the safe and ethical use of this emerging technology for basic research and clinical purposes.


Anti-CRISPR activity; Implications; CRISPR-Cas9 technology; Off-target effects

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