Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Rev Cardiol. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1038/s41569-019-0176-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Endothelins in cardiovascular biology and therapeutics.

Author information

1
University of Edinburgh/British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK. bean.dhaun@ed.ac.uk.
2
Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. bean.dhaun@ed.ac.uk.
3
University of Edinburgh/British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK.

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality and is the common end point of many chronic diseases. The endothelins comprise three structurally similar peptides of 21 amino acids in length. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) and ET-2 activate two G protein-coupled receptors - endothelin receptor type A (ETA) and endothelin receptor type B (ETB) - with equal affinity, whereas ET-3 has a lower affinity for ETA. ET-1 is the most potent vasoconstrictor in the human cardiovascular system and has remarkably long-lasting actions. ET-1 contributes to vasoconstriction, vascular and cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, and to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Endothelin receptor antagonists have revolutionized the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Clinical trials continue to explore new applications of endothelin receptor antagonists, particularly in treatment-resistant hypertension, chronic kidney disease and patients receiving antiangiogenic therapies. Translational studies have identified important roles for the endothelin isoforms and new therapeutic targets during development, in fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, and in cardiovascular and neuronal function. Novel pharmacological strategies are emerging in the form of small-molecule epigenetic modulators, biologics (such as monoclonal antibodies for ETB) and possibly signalling pathway-biased agonists and antagonists.

PMID:
30867577
DOI:
10.1038/s41569-019-0176-3

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center