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Oncol Rep. 2019 May;41(5):2689-2702. doi: 10.3892/or.2019.7054. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Combination of phospholipase Cε knockdown with GANT61 sensitizes castration‑resistant prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide by suppressing the androgen receptor signaling pathway.

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Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, P.R. China.
Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Ministry of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, P.R. China.
Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, P.R. China.


Castration‑resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a major challenge in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Phospholipase Cε (PLCε), an oncogene, has been found to be involved in the carcinogenesis, tumor proliferation and migration of several types of cancer. The effects, however, of PLCε on CRPC remains unclear. In the present study, the expression of PLCε and glioma‑associated homolog (Gli)‑1/Gli‑2 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), PCa and CRPC tissues and cells was investigated, and the correlations between PLCε and Gli‑1/Gli‑2 in CRPC tissues and cell lines were further explored. In addition, the effect of PLCε on cell proliferation and invasion was assessed in CRPC cell lines, and the sensitivity of EN‑R and 22RV1 cells to enzalutamide following the downregulation of PLCε expression was determined using lentivirus‑mediated shPLCε and/or treatment with specific Gli inhibitor GANT61. It was found that the PLCε expression was excessively upregulated in the majority of CRPC tissues, and PLCε positivity was linked to poor progression‑free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with PCa. Furthermore, PLCε knockdown significantly suppressed CRPC cell proliferation and invasion. Of note, it was found that PLCε knockdown increased the sensitivity of CRPC cells to enzalutamide in vitro by suppressing androgen receptor (AR) activities via the non‑canonical Hedgehog/Gli‑2 and p‑STAT3 signaling pathways. PLCε knockdown was shown to increase the sensitivity of CRPC cell xenografts to enzalutamide in vivo. Finally, the combination of PLCε knockdown with GANT61 significantly sensitized CRPC cells to enzalutamide. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that PLCε is a potential therapeutic target for CRPC.

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