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Lancet. 2019 Mar 9;393(10175):1056-1070. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33207-0.

Multimodality imaging in ischaemic heart failure.

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Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. Electronic address:
Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, NY, USA.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.


In heart failure, extensive evaluation with modern non-invasive imaging modalities is needed to assess causes, pathophysiology, and haemodynamics, to determine prognosis and consider therapeutic options. This systematic evaluation includes a stepwise assessment of left ventricular size and function, the presence and severity of coronary artery disease, mitral regurgitation, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dilation and dysfunction, and tricuspid regurgitation. Based on this imaging-derived information, the need for specific therapies besides optimised medical therapy can be determined. The need for revascularisation, implantation of an implantable cardiac defibrillator, and mitral or tricuspid valve repair or replacement, can be (partially) guided by non-invasive imaging. Importantly, randomised controlled trials on the use of non-inasive imaging to guide therapy are scarce in this field and most non-pharmacological therapies are based on expert-consensus, but whenever trials are available, they will be addressed in this paper.

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