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Clin Transplant. 2019 Mar 12:e13525. doi: 10.1111/ctr.13525. [Epub ahead of print]

Emerging fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients: Guidelines of the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.

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Transplant and Oncology Infectious Diseases Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
Transplant Infectious Diseases Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Organ Transplant Infectious Disease, Methodist Transplant Specialists, Dallas, Texas.


These updated AST-IDCOP guidelines review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of emerging fungi after organ transplantation. Infections due to numerous generally innocuous fungi are increasingly recognized in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, comprising about 7%-10% of fungal infections in this setting. Such infections are collectively referred to as emerging fungal infections and include Mucormycetes, Fusarium, Scedosporium, and dematiaceous fungi among others. The causative organisms are diverse in their pathophysiology, uncommon in the clinical setting, have evolving nomenclature, and are often resistant to multiple commonly used antifungal agents. In recent years significant advances have been made in understanding of the epidemiology of these emerging fungal infections, with improved diagnosis and expanded treatment options. Still, treatment guidelines are generally informed by and limited to experience from cohorts of patients with hematological malignancies and/or solid and stem cell transplants. While multicenter randomized controlled trials are not feasible for these uncommon infections in SOT recipients, collaborative prospective studies can be valuable in providing information on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and outcomes associated with the more commonly encountered infections.


antifungal therapy; fusarium; scedosporium; zygomyces


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