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Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 11;9(1):4042. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40182-9.

Effects of bowel preparation on the human gut microbiome and metabolome.

Author information

1
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. nnagata_ncgm@yahoo.co.jp.
2
Pathogenic Microbe Laboratory, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
3
Department of Microbiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.
5
Intestinal Microbiota Project, Kanagawa Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Ebina, Japan.
6
Transborder Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
7
PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Japan.
8
RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Wako, Japan.
9
Computational Bio-Big Data Open Innovation Lab., National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
10
Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
11
Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
12
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Center Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
13
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
14
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Kohnodai Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

Large bowel preparation may cause a substantial change in the gut microbiota and metabolites. Here, we included a bowel prep group and a no-procedure control group and evaluated the effects of bowel prep on the stability of the gut microbiome and metabolome as well as on recovery. Gut microbiota and metabolome compositions were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, respectively. Analysis of coefficients at the genus and species level and weighted UniFrac distance showed that, compared with controls, microbiota composition was significantly reduced immediately after the prep but not at 14 days after it. For the gut metabolome profiles, correlation coefficients between before and immediately after the prep were significantly lower than those between before and 14 days after prep and were not significantly different compared with those for between-subject differences. Thirty-two metabolites were significantly changed before and immediately after the prep, but these metabolites recovered within 14 days. In conclusion, bowel preparation has a profound effect on the gut microbiome and metabolome, but the overall composition recovers to baseline within 14 days. To properly conduct studies of the human gut microbiome and metabolome, fecal sampling should be avoided immediately after bowel prep.

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