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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2019 Mar 11. doi: 10.1002/ccd.28185. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of failed prosthetic valves in the valve-in-valve era: Potential for utilizing positron emission tomography/computed tomography to recognize infective endocarditis.

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Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.


Bioprosthetic valve dysfunction was treated in the past with redo open heart surgery. The need to identify occult leaflet infection was not an important requirement as all valve tissue was removed during surgery. With the dramatic growth in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) valve-in-valve (ViV) therapy, identification of occult infection is of major significance. TAVR should be rarely performed in infected prosthetic valves and the optimal approach should include open heart surgery and removal of infected tissue. With surgical implants, it can be challenging to distinguish infection from degeneration. The use of advanced imaging modalities, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, in the diagnosis of occult infection is emerging. We report the use of this imaging modality to identify or exclude endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valves who were candidates for ViV therapy.


infective endocarditis; position emission tomography; prosthetic valve; valve-in-valve


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