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Alcohol Alcohol. 2019 Jul 1;54(4):396-401. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agz018.

Dose-Response Relative Risk of Injury From Acute Alcohol Consumption in 22 Countries: Are Women at Higher Risk Than Men?

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Alcohol Research Group, 6001 Shellmound St., Suite 450, Emeryville, CA, USA.
Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA.



The risk of injury from alcohol consumption was analyzed by gender, controlling for frequency of heavy drinking occasions, and by cause of injury (traffic, violence, fall, other).


Case-crossover analysis was conducted on 18,627 injured patients arriving at the emergency department (ED) within six hours of the event.


Risk of injury was similar for females and males at ≤3 drinks prior to injury (OR = 2.74 vs. 2.76, respectively). At higher volume levels females were at greater risk than males, and significantly so at 3.1-6 drinks and 6.1-10 drinks (gender by volume interaction: OR = 0.60, CI = 0.39-0.93 and OR = 0.50, CI = 0.27-0.93, respectively). For those reporting 5+ ≥ monthly, females were at higher risk than males at all volume levels, and the gender by volume interaction was stronger than for those consuming 5+ <monthly at ≤3 drinks (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.28-0.92) and 6.1-10 drinks (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.18-0.82). Females were at higher risk of injury than males for all causes of injury except those related to traffic at lower levels of consumption (<6 drinks), although the gender by volume interaction was significant only for injury from other causes at 3.1-6 drinks (OR = 0.23, CI = 0.09-0.87).


Females are at higher risk of injury than males, regardless of frequency of heavy drinking and for all causes other than those related to traffic.

[Available on 2020-07-01]

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