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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2019 Apr;39(4):191-204. doi: 10.1089/jir.2018.0141. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Cellular Requirements for Sensing and Elimination of Incoming HSV-1 DNA and Capsids.

Author information

1
1 Department of Biomedicine and Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
2
2 Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
3
3 Bioinformatics Research Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Abstract

Incoming viruses challenge the cell with diverse foreign molecules, which need to be sensed quickly to initiate immune responses and to remove the viral components. In this study, we investigate the cellular requirements for sensing and degradation of incoming viral DNA and capsids during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections. Using click chemistry labeling of the viral genome, we found that HSV-1 DNA was released from a subset of capsids into the cytosol early in infection. By next-generation sequencing of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-bound DNA from HSV-1-infected cells, we show that HSV-1 DNA was bound by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS. Activation of cGAS enzymatic activity by viral DNA did not require proteasomal activity, indicating that viral DNA release into the cytosol is not proteasome-dependent. However, induction of interferon (IFN)-β expression was blocked by inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting a contribution of the proteasome to IFN-β induction through the cGAS-stimulator of interferon genes pathway. Viral DNA was cleared from the cytosol within few hours, in a manner dependent on TREX1 and a cGAS-dependent process. Capsid material in the cytoplasm was also degraded rapidly. This was partially blocked by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor. This treatment led to accumulation of DNA-containing viral capsids near the nucleus and reduced nuclear entry of viral DNA. Thus, cells infected with HSV-1 use a panel of mechanisms to eliminate viral DNA and capsids. This represents a barrier for establishment of infection and potentially enables the host to gear the IFN-β response to a level required for antiviral defense without causing immunopathology.

KEYWORDS:

DNA sensing; cGAS-STING; herpes simplex virus

PMID:
30855198
DOI:
10.1089/jir.2018.0141

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