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Arch Esp Urol. 2019 Mar;72(2):116-125.

New markers in prostate cancer: Genomics.

Author information

1
Department of Urology. University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine. Technische Universität Dresden. Dresden. Germany. National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), partner site Dresden. Dresden. Germany.

Abstract

in English, Spanish

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a very heterogeneous disease with unknown outcome at the time of first diagnosis. Multiple clinicopathological parameters andmodern imaging approaches are currently used to detect PCa and to assess the necessity of early or delayed treatment according to the predicted aggressiveness of the tumor. Despite regular adjustments of predictive systems based on histopathological factors such as the Gleason grading system or based on prostate MRI such as the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) these tools for risk stratification of PCa patients still harbor significant limitations with regard to the accuracy of PCa outcome prediction. Therefore, great hopes have been placed on the use of biomolecular markers which might be more closely associated with the underlying biological characteristics of this tumor entity and able to predict the course of the disease better than clinical parameters. Such biomarkers are expected to serve as valuable tools not only to improve PCa diagnostics but also to enhance pre- and posttreatment risk stratification which could finally facilitate therapeutic decisions.In this review, current literature on genomic biomarkers used for PCa detection and early prediction of the tumor aggressiveness is examined. First, germline mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms which might influence PCa onset are discussed in relation to the usefulness of targeted PCa screening approaches. Moreover, different urine- and tissue-based diagnostic tests assessing PCa-associated alterations on genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional level are reviewed. Most of these genomic biomarker assays were validated in large patient cohorts and their potential clinical usability could be proven. They provide useful diagnostic information to facilitate decisions with regard to screen men at risk to develop PCa or to repeat diagnostics in men with negative biopsy results, but persistent suspicion of cancer.Several assays can assist the early identification of patients with high-risk PCa, who potentially would need treatment, and may facilitate the selection of patients suitable for active surveillance. More evidence of the clinicalusability of such genomic PCa detection assays has to be provided by further prospective studies to support the transferability of these new diagnostic approaches to daily clinical practice.

KEYWORDS:

Cribado; Epigenetic markers; Germline mutations; Marcadores de transcripción; Marcadores epigenéticos; Mutaciones de la línea germinal; Outcome prediction; Polimorfismos de nucleótido aislado; Predicción de evolución; Screening; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Transcript markers

PMID:
30855012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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