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Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2019 Mar 11;23(3):23. doi: 10.1007/s11916-019-0757-1.

Low Back Pain, a Comprehensive Review: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. iurits@bidmc.harvard.edu.
2
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hofstra-Northwell Health System, Great Neck, NY, 11021, USA.
3
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
4
Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
5
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
6
Department of Anesthesiology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.
7
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Tyler, TX, USA.
8
Department of Anesthesiology, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30308, USA.
9
Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Low back pain encompasses three distinct sources: axial lumbosacral, radicular, and referred pain. Annually, the prevalence of low back pain in the general US adult population is 10-30%, and the lifetime prevalence of US adults is as high as 65-80%.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Patient history, physical exam, and diagnostic testing are important components to accurate diagnosis and identification of patient pathophysiology. Etiologies of low back pain include myofascial pain, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, discogenic pain, spinal stenosis, and failed back surgery. In chronic back pain patients, a multidisciplinary, logical approach to treatment is most effective and can include multimodal medical, psychological, physical, and interventional approaches. Low back pain is a difficult condition to effectively treat and continues to affect millions of Americans every year. In the current investigation, we present a comprehensive review of low back pain and discuss associated pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Axial low back pain; Low back pain; Lumbosacral pain; Radiculopathy; Referred low back pain

PMID:
30854609
DOI:
10.1007/s11916-019-0757-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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