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Environ Res. 2019 May;172:543-551. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.02.045. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Biomonitoring of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in children: Associations with house dust and housing characteristics in Japan.

Author information

1
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address: michiel.bastiaensen@uantwerpen.be.
2
Center for Environmental and Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.
3
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
4
Osaka Occupational Health Service Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2-3-8, Tosabori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0001, Japan.
5
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address: adrian.covaci@uantwerpen.be.

Abstract

Indoor environments contain a wide range of new chemicals such as phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs). Despite recent epidemiological evidence suggesting that children might be affected by widespread exposure to PFRs, questions remain about the various exposure pathways to these chemicals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate exposure to PFRs by measuring the concentrations a set of urinary metabolites for schoolchildren from Japan (n = 128) and associating them with house dust concentrations and housing characteristics. Detectable concentrations of both diaryl and dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PFRs) were found in urine samples of almost all children. 2-Hydroxyethyl bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEHEP) was the most frequently detected metabolite (98%) followed by 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP, 95%) and tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Next to BBOEHEP, two other metabolites of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were also frequently detected. Significant correlations of moderate strength were found between parent compounds detected in high concentrations in house dust (TBOEP, tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP)) and their corresponding metabolites, suggesting that dust is a primary exposure source for these PFRs. Several personal and housing characteristics, such as gender, income, and the use of PVC and ventilation were associated with metabolite concentrations in multivariate linear regression. Overall, this study showed that Japanese schoolchildren are exposed to a wide range of PFRs.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Correlations; House dust; Metabolites; Organophosphate flame retardants

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