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Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2019 Mar 9;18(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s12933-019-0832-2.

Asymptomatic coronary artery disease in a Norwegian cohort with type 2 diabetes: a prospective angiographic study with intravascular ultrasound evaluation.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
2
KG Jebsen Center for Cardiac Research, University of Oslo, and Center for Heart Failure Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
3
Department of Medical Research, Bærum Hospital Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Gjettum, PB 800, 3004, Drammen, Norway. Annepernille@hotmail.com.
4
Department of Medical Research, Bærum Hospital Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Gjettum, PB 800, 3004, Drammen, Norway.
5
Department of Radiology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.
6
Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
7
Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

AIMS:

The prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is unclear. We investigated the extent and prevalence of asymptomatic CAD in T2D patients by utilizing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and whether CAD progression, evaluated by ICA, could be modulated with a multi-intervention to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk.

METHODS:

Fifty-six T2D patients with ≥ 1 additional CV risk factor participated in a 2 year randomized controlled study comparing hospital-based multi-intervention (multi, n = 30) versus standard care (stand, n = 26), with a pre-planned follow-up at year seven. They underwent ICA at baseline and both ICA and IVUS at year seven. ICA was described by conventional CAD severity and extent scores. IVUS was described by maximal intimal thickness (MIT), percent and total atheroma volume and compared with individuals without T2D and CAD (heart transplant donors who had IVUS performed 7-11 weeks post-transplant, n = 147).

RESULTS:

Despite CV risk reduction in multi after 2 years intervention, there was no between-group difference in the progression of CAD at year seven. Overall, the prevalence of CAD defined by MIT ≥ 0.5 mm in the T2DM subjects was 84%, and as compared to the non-T2DM controls there was a significantly higher atheroma burden (mean MIT, PAV and TAV in the T2D population were 0.75 ± 0.27 mm, 33.8 ± 9.8% and 277.0 ± 137.3 mm3 as compared to 0.41 ± 0.19 mm, 17.8 ± 7.3% and 134.9 ± 100.6 mm3 in the reference population).

CONCLUSION:

We demonstrated that a 2 year multi-intervention, despite improvement in CV risk factors, did not influence angiographic progression of CAD. Further, IVUS revealed that the prevalence of asymptomatic CAD in T2D patients is high, suggesting a need for a broader residual CV risk management using alternative approaches. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov id: NCT00133718 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00133718 ).

KEYWORDS:

Atheroma burden; Coronary artery disease; Intravascular ultrasound; Invasive coronary angiography; Multi-factorial treatment; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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