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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019 Apr 15;369:90-99. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2019.03.003. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Comparison of the neurotoxicity associated with cobalt nanoparticles and cobalt chloride in Wistar rats.

Author information

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; The Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China.
2
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; The Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China.
3
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China.
4
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Forchheimer 209, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
5
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; The Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China. Electronic address: fmuwsy@163.com.
6
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Louisville, 485 E. Gray Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. Electronic address: qunwei.zhang@louisville.edu.
7
Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China; The Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China. Electronic address: fmulhy@163.com.

Abstract

Cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) have been widely used in industry given their physical, chemical and magnetic properties; however, CoNPs may cause neurological symptoms and diseases in human, yet their mechanisms of toxicity remain unknown. Here, we used male Wistar rats to investigate differences in the toxic effects associated with CoNPs and CoCl2. Upon exposure to CoCl2, and 96 nm or 123 nm CoNPs at the same concentration, the Co2+ content in CoCl2 group was significantly higher than that in either the CoNPs groups in brain tissues and blood, but lower in liver. Significant neural damage was observed in both hippocampus and cortex of the temporal lobe. Increase malondialdehyde (MDA) content and CASPASE 9 protein level were associated both with CoCl2 and CoNPs treatments, consistent with lipid perioxidation and apoptosis. Heme oxygenase-1 and (NF-E2) p45-related factor-2 protein levels were elevated in response to 96 nm CoNPs exposure. In PC12 cells, NRF2 downregulation led to reduced cell viability and increased apoptotic rate. In conclusion, both CoNPs and CoCl2 cause adverse neural effects, with nanoparticles showing greater neurotoxic potency. In addition, NRF2 protects neural cells from damage induced by CoCl2 and CoNPs by activating downstream antioxidant responses.

KEYWORDS:

CoCl(2); CoNPs; NRF2; Neurotoxic effects

PMID:
30849457
DOI:
10.1016/j.taap.2019.03.003

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