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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Mar 6. pii: S1198-743X(19)30094-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.02.026. [Epub ahead of print]

Individual- and community-level risk factors for ESBL Enterobacteriaceae colonization identified by universal admission screening in London.

Author information

1
Centre for Clinical Infection and Diagnostics Research (CIDR), Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London & Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in HCAIs and AMR at Imperial College London, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Infection Prevention and Control, London, UK. Electronic address: j.otter@imperial.ac.uk.
2
Centre for Clinical Infection and Diagnostics Research (CIDR), Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London & Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
3
Centre for Clinical Infection and Diagnostics Research (CIDR), Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London & Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in HCAIs and AMR at Imperial College London, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Infection Prevention and Control, London, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We evaluated risk factors for gastrointestinal carriage of Enterobacteriaceae which produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL-E), including individual-level variables such as antibiotic use and foreign travel, and community-level variables such as housing and deprivation.

METHODS:

In an observational study in 2015, all patients admitted to a London hospital group were approached to be screened for ESBL-E carriage using rectal swabs for 4 months. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire. Those with a residential postcode in the local catchment area were linked to a database containing community-level risk factor data. Risk factors for ESBL-E carriage were determined by binary logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Of 4006 patients, 360 (9.0%) carried ESBL-E. Escherichia coli was the most common organism (77.8%), and CTX-M-type ESBLs were the most common genes (57.9% CTX-M-15 and 20.7% CTX-M-9). In multivariable analysis, risk factors for phenotypic ESBL-E among the 1633 patients with a residential postcode within the local catchment area were: travel to Asia (OR 4.4, CI 2.5-7.6) or Africa (OR 2.4, CI 1.2-4.8) in the 12 months prior to admission, two or more courses of antibiotics in the 6 months prior to admission (OR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.0), and residence in a district with a higher-than-average prevalence of overcrowded households (OR 1.5, CI 1.05-2.2). .

CONCLUSIONS:

Both individual and community variables were associated with ESBL-E carriage at hospital admission. The novel observation that household overcrowding is associated with ESBL-E carriage requires confirmation, but raises the possibility that targeted interventions in the community could help prevent transmission of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic resistance; ESBL; Epidemiology; Risk factors; Travel

PMID:
30849431
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmi.2019.02.026

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