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Diabetes Ther. 2019 Apr;10(2):735-749. doi: 10.1007/s13300-019-0591-9. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Patient Preferences for GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Japan: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

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Patient-Centered Research, Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Novo Nordisk, Tokyo, Japan.
Patient-Centered Research, Evidera, London, UK.
Patient-Centered Research, Evidera, Seattle, WA, USA.



The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are increasing in Japan, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are commonly used to treat the disease. The objective of this study was to use a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to characterize patient preferences for clinical treatment features of two GLP-1 RAs-dulaglutide 0.75 mg and semaglutide 0.50 mg-among patients with T2D in Japan.


Adult patients with T2D in Japan were administered the DCE via a web-based survey. The DCE examined patient preferences for five treatment attributes (each described by two or three levels), including method of administration, HbA1c change, reduction in cardiovascular (CV) risk, weight change, and common side effects (i.e., nausea). Results were analyzed using multinomial and mixed logit models, and predicted choice probability was calculated to determine the overall probability that either dulaglutide or semaglutide DCE levels were preferred. One DCE choice task included a direct comparison of the dulaglutide 0.75 mg versus semaglutide 0.50 mg treatment profiles.


190 subjects completed the survey; 29 were excluded after failing the predefined internal validity assessments. In the final analysis sample (N = 161), the attribute with the largest effect on the subjects' choices was reduction in CV risk, followed by HbA1c change and common side effects. Patients' predicted choice probability for the semaglutide profile was 78%, versus 22% for the dulaglutide profile. 28% of patients were "very willing" to initiate treatment with semaglutide's product profile, versus 6% for dulaglutide.


In this study, reduction in CV risk and HbA1c change were the key drivers of GLP-1 RA medication preference in Japanese patients with T2D. Overall, the majority of the patients preferred a product with attribute levels reflecting the semaglutide 0.50 mg profile, with a known CV risk reduction benefit and superior HbA1c reduction.


Novo Nordisk.


Cardiovascular (CV) disease risk; Discrete choice experiment; Patient preference; Type 2 diabetes (T2D)

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