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Bull World Health Organ. 1978;56(3):445-52.

Evaluation of fenitrothion for the control of malaria.


Fenitrothion was evaluated for residual spraying in antimalaria programmes in a large-scale field trial near Kisumu, Kenya from 1972 to 1976. The insecticide was applied in a hyper/holoendemic malarious area of 200 km(2) inhabited by about 50 000 people. All houses and animal shelters were sprayed at a target dosage rate of 2 g/m(2) at 3-month intervals for a total of 8 consecutive spray rounds in 2 years. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae species A and B and A. funestus were reduced to negligible densities indoors and outdoors immediately after initiation of spraying and for 10 months after the last spray round. However, A. gambiae reappeared during the main wet season at densities high enough to reestablish low-level transmission for short periods. Spraying produced a marked and rapid decrease in both the incidence and prevalence of malaria. The daily probability of acquiring malaria infection was reduced from 0.009 before spraying to 0.0003 under spray protection, a reduction of 96%. Data collected on a longitudinal basis indicated that sustained spray protection would reduce malaria prevalence to an asymptotic limit of 6.9% under the assumption that the inoculation and recovery rates remain stable. However, to attain malaria eradication in this type of epidemiological situation, complementary measures such as mass drug administration appear to be necessary.

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