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J Wound Care. 2019 Mar 3;28(3):148-153. doi: 10.12968/jowc.2019.28.3.148.

Topical application of haemoglobin: a safety study.

Author information

Division of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
COREMED - Cooperative Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz, Austria.
HEALTH - Institute for Biomedicine and Health Sciences, Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz, Austria.
Technical Department, Austrian Dust-Silicosis Control Center (ÖSBS), Leoben, Austria.



Ischaemia is one of the biggest problems in wound healing. It causes chronic wounds and also prevents normal wound healing because the tissue is oxygen deprived. Most oxygen-supplying therapies are only feasible in a clinical setting, but topical haemoglobin applications, such as Granulox, can be used in a non-clinical setting. For home application, the haemoglobin solution is sprayed topically onto the wound using a pressurised ready-to-use device with a bag-on-valve system. Although this system does not mix product and propellant, the risk of product inhalation by the patient, user or bystanders has to be minimised. This safety study aimed to determine particle size and product concentration in the surroundings after application to determine if there is a risk that product particles enter the respiratory tract.


Measurements were performed using a laser scattered light photometer and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS)-Spectrometer at different distances from the measuring devices to determine the inhalation risk for a possible user, patient and bystander. At all measuring points the amount of particles, their size and the formation of dust were measured.


No nanoparticles or dust were created during the application of the haemoglobin spray. The concentrations of the measured particles are below the allowed limits defined by Austrian law.


There is no risk of inhaling nanoparticles or being exposed to harmful concentrations of larger particles of the tested product. All the product's ingredients can be degraded and excreted by the human body through natural pathways.


chronic wounds; ischaemia; nanoparticles; topical haemoglobin; topical oxygen therapy; user safety

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