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J Med Chem. 2019 Mar 28;62(6):2988-3008. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01819. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Optimization of Potent and Selective Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated Inhibitors Suitable for a Proof-of-Concept Study in Huntington's Disease Models.

Author information

1
CHDI Management/CHDI Foundation , 6080 Center Drive , Los Angeles , California 90045 , United States.
2
Charles River , Chesterford Research Park , Saffron Walden CB10 1XL , U.K.
3
Charles River , Leiden 2333 CR , Netherlands.

Abstract

Genetic and pharmacological evidence indicates that the reduction of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase activity can ameliorate mutant huntingtin (mHTT) toxicity in cellular and animal models of Huntington's disease (HD), suggesting that selective inhibition of ATM could provide a novel clinical intervention to treat HD. Here, we describe the development and characterization of ATM inhibitor molecules to enable in vivo proof-of-concept studies in HD animal models. Starting from previously reported ATM inhibitors, we aimed with few modifications to increase brain exposure by decreasing P-glycoprotein liability while maintaining potency and selectivity. Here, we report brain-penetrant ATM inhibitors that have robust pharmacodynamic (PD) effects consistent with ATM kinase inhibition in the mouse brain and an understandable pharmacokinetic/PD (PK/PD) relationship. Compound 17 engages ATM kinase and shows robust dose-dependent inhibition of X-ray irradiation-induced KAP1 phosphorylation in the mouse brain. Furthermore, compound 17 protects against mHTT (Q73)-induced cytotoxicity in a cortical-striatal cell model of HD.

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