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Curr Pharm Des. 2019;25(7):750-773. doi: 10.2174/1381612825666190304123545.

Recent Advances of In-Silico Modeling of Potent Antagonists for the Adenosine Receptors.

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Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Department of Chemistry, Physics and Atmospheric Sciences, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, United States.


The rapid advancement of computer architectures and development of mathematical algorithms offer a unique opportunity to leverage the simulation of macromolecular systems at physiologically relevant timescales. Herein, we discuss the impact of diverse structure-based and ligand-based molecular modeling techniques in designing potent and selective antagonists against each adenosine receptor (AR) subtype that constitutes multitude of drug targets. The efficiency and robustness of high-throughput empirical scoring function-based approaches for hit discovery and lead optimization in the AR family are assessed with the help of illustrative examples that have led to nanomolar to sub-micromolar inhibition activities. Recent progress in computer-aided drug discovery through homology modeling, quantitative structure-activity relation, pharmacophore models, and molecular docking coupled with more accurate free energy calculation methods are reported and critically analyzed within the framework of structure-based virtual screening of AR antagonists. Later, the potency and applicability of integrated molecular dynamics (MD) methods are addressed in the context of diligent inspection of intricated AR-antagonist binding processes. MD simulations are exposed to be competent for studying the role of the membrane as well as the receptor flexibility toward the precise evaluation of the biological activities of antagonistbound AR complexes such as ligand binding modes, inhibition affinity, and associated thermodynamic and kinetic parameters.


Adenosine receptor; GPCR; In silico; Molecular Dynamics; QSAR; macromolecular systems.

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