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Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2019 Mar 5;2019. pii: EDM180131. doi: 10.1530/EDM-18-0131. [Epub ahead of print]

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Abstract

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are the most severe acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). HHS is characterized by severe hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis and acidosis. A 14-year-old Japanese boy presented at the emergency room with lethargy, polyuria and polydipsia. He belonged to a baseball club team and habitually drank sugar-rich beverages daily. Three weeks earlier, he suffered from lassitude and developed polyuria and polydipsia 1 week later. He had been drinking more sugar-rich isotonic sports drinks (approximately 1000-1500 mL/day) than usual (approximately 500 mL/day). He presented with HHS (hyperglycemia (1010 mg/dL, HbA1c 12.3%) and mild hyperosmolality (313 mOsm/kg)) without acidosis (pH 7.360), severe ketosis (589 ╬╝mol/L) and ketonuria. He presented HHS in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with elevated glutamate decarboxylase antibody and islet antigen 2 antibody. Consuming beverages with high sugar concentrations caused hyperglycemia and further exacerbates thirst, resulting in further beverage consumption. Although he recovered from HHS following intensive transfusion and insulin treatment, he was significantly sensitive to insulin therapy. Even the appropriate amount of insulin may result in dramatically decreasing blood sugar levels in patients with T1DM. We should therefore suspect T1DM in patients with HHS but not those with obesity. Moreover, age, clinical history and body type are helpful for identifying T1DM and HHS. Specifically, drinking an excess of beverages rich in sugars represents a risk of HHS in juvenile/adolescent T1DM patients. Learning points: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) is characterized by severe hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis and acidosis. The discrimination between HHS of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in initial presentation is difficult. Pediatrician should suspect T1DM in patients with HHS but not obesity. Age, clinical history and body type are helpful for identifying T1DM and HHS. Children with T1DM are very sensitive to insulin treatment, and even appropriate amount of insulin may result in dramatically decreasing blood sugar levels.

KEYWORDS:

2019; Adolescent/young adult; Anti-islet cell antibody; Asian - Japanese; BMI; Beta-hydroxybutyrate; C-peptide (blood); Dehydration; Diabetes; Diabetes mellitus type 1; Diet; Emergency; Fatigue; GADA; General practice; Glucose (blood); Haemoglobin A1c; Hyperglycaemia; Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state; Insulin; Japan; Ketones (plasma); Male; March; Paediatric endocrinology; Paediatrics; Pancreas; Polydipsia; Polyuria; Saline; Ultrasound scan; Unique/unexpected symptoms or presentations of a disease; Weight; Weight loss

PMID:
30836328
DOI:
10.1530/EDM-18-0131
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