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Neurosurg Focus. 2019 Mar 1;46(3):E10. doi: 10.3171/2018.12.FOCUS18602.

Stem cell therapies for acute spinal cord injury in humans: a review.

Abstract

Recent advances in stem cell biology present significant opportunities to advance clinical applications of stem cell-based therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI). In this review, the authors critically analyze the basic science and translational evidence that supports the use of various stem cell sources, including induced pluripotent stem cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. They subsequently explore recent advances in stem cell biology and discuss ongoing clinical translation efforts, including combinatorial strategies utilizing scaffolds, biogels, and growth factors to augment stem cell survival, function, and engraftment. Finally, the authors discuss the evolution of stem cell therapies for SCI by providing an overview of completed (n = 18) and ongoing (n = 9) clinical trials.

KEYWORDS:

AD-MSC = adipose-derived MSC; ASIA = American Spinal Injury Association; BDNF = brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BM-MSC = bone marrow–derived MSC; BMP = bone morphogenetic protein; ESC = embryonic stem cell; MEP = motor evoked potential; MSC = mesenchymal stem cell; NPC = neural progenitor cell; OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell; SCI = spinal cord injury; TGFβ = transforming growth factor–β; U-MSC = umbilical cord MSC; clinical trials; iPSC = induced pluripotent stem cell; spinal cord injury; stem cell; transplant; trauma

PMID:
30835679
DOI:
10.3171/2018.12.FOCUS18602

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