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Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2019 Mar 5. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0026. [Epub ahead of print]

Peeled volume models of a whole body to enhance comprehension of anthropological bone landmarks.

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Baewha Woman's University, Pirundae-ro 1-gil 34, 03039 Seoul, Korea, Republic Of.
Ajou University School of Medicine, World cup-ro 164, Suwon, Korea, Republic Of.
Inha University, Inha-ro 100, Incheon, In.
Ajou University School of Medicine, World cup-ro 164, Suwon, Korea, Republic Of.


In physical anthropology, bone landmarks are palpated in living humans for the identification of corresponding skin landmarks and exact biometry. The purpose of this study is to help comprehend the locations and depths of representative bone landmarks all over the body. The sectioned images of a male cadaver's whole body were used to build a volume model, which was continuously peeled at 1 mm thicknesses to disclose 27 selected landmarks in the anterior, lateral, or posterior views. The captured views of peeled volume models along with the labels of the bone landmarks were loaded to browsing software that was distributed for free. The browsing software containing the peeled volume models will enhance convenient studying of the bone landmarks. With the knowledge of bone landmarks, investigators would be able to attain more accurate measurements between skin landmarks.


anatomic landmarks; bone; cadaver; three-dimensional imaging; visible human projects

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