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Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2019 Feb;22(2):187-196. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2018.30660.7389.

Methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum attenuates ischemia-reperfusion brain injury in Wistar rats: Potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

Author information

Research Scholar, JNT University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu 515002, India.
Connexios Life Sciences Pvt Ltd, Basavanagudi, Bangalore 560 004, India.
Oil Technological and Pharmaceutical Research Institute (OTPRI), JNT University Anantapur, Ananthapuramu 515 002, India.



This study was conducted to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum (MePG) in Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods:

The MePG was initially assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity, and later evaluated on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell line assay. Finally, the MePG was evaluated against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induced brain injury in Wistar rats.


In DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays, the MePG has exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Further, the MePG has significantly inhibited the generation of nitrite, ROS and TNF-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell lines. Besides, global ischemia followed by reperfusion caused significant changes in the neurological and behavioral functions in I/R control animals compared to sham control. Additionally, in the I/R control group there was a substantial decrease in the catalase and superoxide dismutase activities; Likewise, reduced glutathione levels reduced and lipid peroxidation levels enhanced significantly. Also, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and ICAM-I were increased and the levels of IL-10 was decreased significantly. Furthermore, the I/R insult caused increase in brain volume and cerebral infarct formation. Similarly, histopathology of the brain tissue revealed hallmarks like necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, cerebral edema and vascular congestion in I/R control. Notably, MePG (200 and 400 mg/kg) pretreatment for 7 days, has attenuated all the I/R-persuaded pathological changes compared to I/R control. In addition, the LC-MS/MS analysis showed presence of acteoside, apigenin, gallic acid, gossypin, pentagalloyl glucose, quercetin, and rutin as major ingredients in the MePG.


These findings suggest that the MePG possesses significant cerebroprotective activity.


Antioxidant; Cerebral ischemia; Neuroprotection; Punica granatum; Stroke

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