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Environ Res. 2019 Feb 26;172:446-453. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.02.037. [Epub ahead of print]

The relationship of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid concentrations in utero and during childhood with adiposity in 4-year-old children.

Author information

1
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; Environmental Health Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: kslee0116@snu.ac.kr.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: nina337@snu.ac.kr.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: yjlee103@naver.com.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: chshinpd@snu.ac.kr.
5
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; Environmental Health Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: yhl6600@snu.ac.kr.
6
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; Environmental Health Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ychong1@snu.ac.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pyrethroid pesticides are reported to be the most commonly used residential insecticides worldwide. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) concentrations, and growth and adiposity parameters in 4-year-old children.

METHOD:

We obtained data from 578 children who participated in the prospective Environment and Development of Children (EDC) study at around 4 years of age (45-55 months) between August 2008 and July 2011. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at age 4 years. Prenatal and postnatal urinary 3-PBA concentration was measured in maternal urine samples at around 20 weeks of gestation, and in the 4-year-old children, respectively.

RESULT:

The detection frequency of urinary 3-PBA (geometric mean concentration) was 98-99% (0.98 μg/g Cr) in maternal urine, and almost 99-100% (1.34 μg/g Cr) in 4-year-old children. Prenatal urinary3-PBA concentration was not associated with height, weight, or body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 4 years of age, regardless of sex. Postnatal urinary3-PBA concentration was not related to height z-scores, but was positively associated with weight z-scores with marginal significance among only girls (p = 0.058). Analyzed by sex, there was a significant relationship between postnatal urinary 3-PBA concentration and BMI z-scores (p = 0.015) among girls, after adjusting for covariates.

CONCLUSION:

Childhood urinary 3-PBA concentration measured at 4 years of age was positively associated with BMI z-scores in 4-year-old girls, but prenatal urinary 3-PBA concentration at midterm pregnancy exhibited no association.

KEYWORDS:

3-phenoxybenzoic acid; Adiposity; Body mass index z-score; Children; Growth

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