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Virus Res. 2019 May;265:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.02.018. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Effects of life history and ecology on virus evolutionary potential.

Author information

1
Department of Entomology, Washington State University, 166 FSHN Building, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA. Electronic address: paul.chisholm@wsu.edu.
2
School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, PO Box 644236, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA. Electronic address: jwbusch@wsu.edu.
3
Department of Entomology, Washington State University, 166 FSHN Building, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA. Electronic address: dcrowder@wsu.edu.

Abstract

The life history traits of viruses pose many consequences for viral population structure. In turn, population structure may influence the evolutionary trajectory of a virus. Here we review factors that affect the evolutionary potential of viruses, including rates of mutation and recombination, bottlenecks, selection pressure, and ecological factors such as the requirement for hosts and vectors. Mutation, while supplying a pool of raw genetic material, also results in the generation of numerous unfit mutants. The infection of multiple host species may expand a virus' ecological niche, although it may come at a cost to genetic diversity. Vector-borne viruses often experience a diminished frequency of positive selection and exhibit little diversity, and resistance against vector-borne viruses may thus be more durable than against non-vectored viruses. Evidence indicates that adaptation to a vector is more evolutionarily difficult than adaptation to a host. Overall, a better understanding of how various factors influence viral dynamics in both plant and animal pathosystems will lead to more effective anti-viral treatments and countermeasures.

KEYWORDS:

Evolutionary biology; Pathosystems; Review; Virus ecology; Virus evolution

PMID:
30831177
DOI:
10.1016/j.virusres.2019.02.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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