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PeerJ. 2019 Feb 25;7:e6480. doi: 10.7717/peerj.6480. eCollection 2019.

Integrative taxonomic reassessment of Odontophrynus populations in Argentina and phylogenetic relationships within Odontophrynidae (Anura).

Author information

1
Department of Ecology, National University of Rio Cuarto, Rio Cuarto (Cordoba), Argentina.
2
Department of Biology, Institute of Integrated Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany.

Abstract

Amphibians are the most vulnerable vertebrates to biodiversity loss mediated by habitat destruction, climate change and diseases. Informed conservation management requires improving the taxonomy of anurans to assess reliably the species' geographic range. The genus Odontophrynus that is geographically refined to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay includes currently 12 nominal species with many populations of uncertain taxonomic assignment and subsequently unclear geographic ranges. In this study, we applied integrative taxonomic methods combining molecular (mitochondrial 16S gene), allozyme, morphological and bioacoustic data to delimit species of the genus Odontophrynus sampled from throughout Argentina where most species occur. The combined evidence demonstrates one case of cryptic diversity and another of overestimation of species richness. The populations referred to as O. americanus comprise at least three species. In contrast, O. achalensis and O. barrioi represent junior synonyms of the phenotypically plastic species O. occidentalis. We conclude that each of the four species occurring in Argentina inhabits medium to large areas. The Red List classification is currently "Least Concern". We also propose a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus and associated genera Macrogenioglottus and Proceratophrys (Odontophrynidae).

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA sequences; Advertisement call; Allozymes; Integrative taxonomy; Macrogenioglottus; Morphometry; Odontophrynus; Proceratophrys; Species delimitation

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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