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Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2019 Jan 9. pii: S2212-4403(19)30003-3. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2019.01.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Human immunodeficiency virus and salivary gland pathology: an update.

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Associate Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:


Salivary gland disease is a common manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with a significant increase in prevalence over the last two decades. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of non-neoplastic salivary gland disease in HIV infection. The aim is to update information on and bring attention to those lesions, which are almost exclusive to the salivary glands in the HIV setting. The associated conditions include xerostomia or salivary gland hypofunction; Sjögren syndrome-like illness; salivary gland enlargements, including benign lymphoepithelial cysts (cystic lymphoid hyperplasia); diffuse infiltrative CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome; and mucous extravasation phenomena, especially ranula. Many of these conditions show considerable overlap, and thus, the term HIV-associated salivary gland disease is used to designate HIV infection with xerostomia or salivary gland hypofunction, enlargement of one or more of the major salivary glands, or both. These manifestations may be related to HIV infection, and therefore, prompt recognition is invaluable in the diagnosis and treatment of both the salivary gland disease and HIV infection.


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