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Neurointervention. 2019 Mar;14(1):53-60. doi: 10.5469/neuroint.2019.00024. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Efficacy of Percutaneous Sclerotherapy in Low Flow Venous Malformations - A Single Center Series.

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Department of Neuroradiology, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.



We analyzed results of percutaneous sclerotherapy for venous malformations (VMs) in head, neck and extremities.


Thirty-five patients with head and neck and extremities VM treated by sclerotherapy with bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS) were retrospectively reviewed. A pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging was done for all patients to diagnose the lesion. Each lesion received 1 to 11 sessions (average, 2.7; standard deviation [SD], 2.03). We evaluated percentage reduction in swelling size and a Likert scale review of subjective feelings of the patients.


Sixteen had a complete obliteration; by sclerotherapy alone (n=13) and surgery after a 75% reduction (n=3). Ten patients had a significant reduction up to 75% and three patients by 50%. Four had a minimal decrease with reduction of 25% or less. Follow-up duration of the patients varied from a minimum of 6 months up to 3 years (average, 15.7 months; SD, 7.8 months). Of all patients, three refused further treatment and were lost to follow-up, while another two were referred to a dermatologist. Thirteen patients reported feeling excellent after the sessions. Eight patients claimed to feel slightly better compared to before the sessions started. Only three patients complained of feeling the same before and after the sessions. None of the patients still in follow-up have reported a recurrence of a lesion thus far.


Sclerotherapy using bleomycin and STS as sclerosants is a safe and effective primary treatment for VMs in the head and neck as well as in extremities.


Magnetic resonance imaging; Sclerotherapy; Vascular malformations

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