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Environ Res. 2019 Feb 22;172:310-318. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.02.030. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk assessment due to dermal exposure of trace elements and indigo dye in jeans: Migration to artificial sweat.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain.
2
Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain; Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, AAv. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address: joaquim.rovira@urv.cat.

Abstract

The concentration of a number of trace elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Sn, Tl, Ti, V and Zn) were determined in 42 commercialized denim garments (jeans and shirts), being dermal exposure subsequently assessed. Migration experiments with artificial acid and basic sweat were also conducted to determine the release of these elements, as well as indigo dye. In a similar way than for the total content, Mg (124 and 99.4 µg/g) and Mn (27.1 and 7.20 µg/g) showed the highest concentrations in both artificial sweat, acid and basic, respectively. Indigo dye migrated at levels ranged from 3.22 to 7.76 mg/g, being higher in dark than in light blue fabrics. The levels of trace elements and indigo were analysed according to materials of fabric, colour, brand, and eco-labelling. Using total content and migrations rates, dermal exposure to trace elements for adult men, women and teenagers were calculated under the two sweat extractions. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks due to dermal exposure to the elements here analysed in cloths were assessed. Both risks were in the limits of safe to according to international regulations. However, the maximum exposure to Sb reached a hazard quotient (HQ) of 0.3 in clothes partially made of polyester. Despite some authors have established that indigo is an agonist of the aril receptor, health risks due to exposure to indigo dye were not calculated due the lack of toxicological data.

KEYWORDS:

Dermal exposure; Indigo; Jeans; Sweat migration; Trace elements

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