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Mol Cancer. 2019 Mar 1;18(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12943-019-0975-5.

Exosomes in the tumor microenvironment as mediators of cancer therapy resistance.

Li I1,2, Nabet BY3,4.

Author information

1
Stanford Cancer Biology Program, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
2
Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
3
Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. barzin@stanford.edu.
4
Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. barzin@stanford.edu.

Abstract

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that contain genetic material, proteins, and lipids. They function as potent signaling molecules between cancer cells and the surrounding cells that comprise the tumor microenvironment (TME). Exosomes derived from both tumor and stromal cells have been implicated in all stages of cancer progression and play an important role in therapy resistance. Moreover, due to their nature as mediators of cell-cell communication, they are integral to TME-dependent therapy resistance. In this review, we discuss current exosome isolation and profiling techniques and their role in TME interactions and therapy resistance. We also explore emerging clinical applications of both exosomes as biomarkers, direct therapeutic targets, and engineered nanocarriers. In order to fully understand the TME, careful interrogation of exosomes and their cargo is critical. This understanding is a promising avenue for the development of effective clinical applications.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; Exosomes; Therapy resistance; Tumor microenvironment

PMID:
30823926
PMCID:
PMC6397467
DOI:
10.1186/s12943-019-0975-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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